Debian 11 "Bullseye" with native exFAT support and driverless printing – Market Research Telecast

As announced, the Debian release team released version 11 (“Bullseye”) of the Linux distribution on Saturday. The new “Stable” edition was preceded by two years of development work; The results include expanded options for driverless printing and scanning, native support for the exFAT file system and more security when saving passwords.

As usual, numerous software packages have been updated, added or removed. The user interface of the operating system has been refreshed with a new theme and updated versions of the available desktop environments.
“Bullseye” is available for a variety of system architectures: 32-bit and 64-bit versions are available not only for PC, but also for ARM and MIPS. In addition, the new stable can run on the large IBM systems with POWER processors and on the System z mainframe platform.
Debian 11 relies on the latest LTS (Long Time Support) kernel Linux 5.10 from December 2020. A particularly striking innovation here is the exFAT file system already included in Linux 5.7 based on the “sdFAT” driver from Samsung.
In contrast to its predecessor Debian 10, which was still based on Linux 4.19, Bullseye has exFAT support anchored in the kernel. True, the userspace file system is exfat-fuse Still available in Debian 11 – the new standard for exFAT is the kernel driver. The new package provides the utility programs for creating, checking and optimizing exFAT file systems based on the kernel driver exfatprogs ready.

The advantage of the kernel driver over the previous exfat-fuse lies in the sophisticated implementation and better compatibility with the Microsoft original. The underlying driver from Samsung is not remodeled code that is prone to teething problems. Rather, the exFAT support in the Android devices of the Korean manufacturer has already been tested in practice and has proven itself there.

Printer drivers were and always are a bone of contention under Linux. Often there were and are only proprietary drivers whose source code is not disclosed, which makes integration difficult. One solution to this problem is driverless printing and scanning supported by many modern printers and multifunction devices today. The prerequisite for this is, of course, that the operating system is also prepared for it.
This applies to Bullseye – because the new package ipp-usb teaches the system the manufacturer-independent protocol “IPP over USB” (Internet Printing Protocol over USB), which many modern devices use. This protocol allows local USB printers to be addressed as network devices in order to transmit print jobs to them driverlessly.
The driverless counterpart for scanning is provided by the SANE backend (Scanner Access Now Easy) in the form of sane-escl and sane-airscan as part of libsane1. Debian 11 can thus address scanners driverlessly via the eSCL and WSD protocols.
By default, systemd activates the persistent journal feature in the new Debian with an implicit fallback to volatile memory. This allows the problem-free deinstallation of traditional logging daemons and thus a change to a system logged exclusively by systemd. However, this is only sensible and advisable if special functions of traditional logging systems are no longer used. Otherwise their logging ends up in volatile memory. These logs are then irretrievably lost after a reboot.
The standard use of Control Group v2 in systemd is also new. You set up a uniform resource control hierarchy. If necessary, v1 can be reactivated via the kernel command line parameters. This should be considered especially for OpenStack installations.

As usual, the new Debian version brings a number of desktop environments to choose from. GNOME is included in version 3.38 as GNOME3 and as traditional GNOME Flashback. KDE Plasma comes in version 5.20. In addition, Xfce 4.16, Cinnamon 4.8.6, MATE 1.24 as well as LXDE 11 and LXQt 0.16 are on board.
The installation program, the background of the GNOME desktop and the gdm login screen adorns the new “Homeworld” theme. The clear and tidy-looking theme, which according to its creator Juliette Taka is inspired by the Bauhaus movement, was previously selected by the community from 18 proposals submitted.

The new “Homeworld” theme also adorns the Debian installer.

(Image: screenshot)

LibreOffice 7.0 is part of the package as an office package. Debian 11 relies on the conservative version. The Calligra Suite is also updated to 3.2. With a total of more than 59,500 packages, of which almost 11,300 have been added, Bullseye brings a wide range of software with it. Over 9,500 packages from the previous version were deleted as “obsolete”.
Debian 11 has chosen gcc 10.2 as the new standard compiler. It replaces the gcc 8.3. LLVM clang gets an update from 7.0 to 11.0.
In terms of usability, the new generic command line command open a much simpler alternative to xdg-open It can be used to open documents and directories from the terminal on the desktop.
Bullseye uses password hashing yescrypt as default. yescrypt, one of the finalists of the Passwort Hashing Competition 2013, replaces SHA-512 as the standard way of storing passwords in Debian. The Debian project expects this to provide increased security against dictionary-based attacks.
Bullseye password files are incompatible with previous versions of Debian. An entry from / etc / shadow cannot simply be transferred from Bullseye to Buster. Unless bullseye systems are explicitly reset to SHA-512. More details on the PAM (Pluggable Authentication Modules) change can be found in the Debian documentation.
The outsourcing of NIS and NIS + is also new. They are now located in the libnss-nis and libnss-nisplus packages. These packages must be explicitly installed on systems that are still using NIS and NIS +.
Debian 11 will receive updates and security patches for the next five years. The two direct predecessors Stretch (Debian 9) and Buster (Debian 10) remain active. However, support for the LTS version of Stretch will end next year on June 30, 2022. Buster is expected to enter long-time support in mid-2022 and finally to retire in 2024.
With the appearance of Bullseye, the development of the next Debian version 12 starts. It is called “Bookworm” and is expected to appear in 2023.


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